- Rhymes: -ɪtɪk
In linguistics, a clitic is a grammatically independent and phonologically dependent word. It is pronounced like an affix, but works at the phrase level. For example, the English possessive -'s is a clitic; in the phrase the girl next door’s cat, -’s is phonologically attached to the preceding word door while grammatically combined with the phrase the girl next door, the possessor.
Clitics may belong to any grammatical category, though they are commonly pronouns, determiners, or adpositions.
A clitic that precedes its host is called a proclitic.
- English: an apple
A clitic that follows its host is called an enclitic.
A mesoclitic appears between the stem of the host and other affixes.
- Portuguese: Ela levá-lo-ia. ("She take-it-COND" = "She would take it.")
A final type of clitic, the endoclitic, splits apart the root and is inserted between the two pieces. Endoclitics defy the Lexical Integrity Hypothesis (Lexicalist Hypothesis) and so were long claimed to be impossible, but evidence from the Udi language suggests that they do exist. Endoclitics are also found in Pashto.. In addition to Udi and Pashto, endoclitics are reported to exist in Degema.
Properties of cliticsSome clitics can be understood as elements undergoing a historical process of grammaticalization:
- lexical item → clitic → affix
One characteristic shared by many clitics is a lack of prosodic independence. A clitic attaches to an adjacent word, known as its host. Orthographic conventions treat clitics in different ways: Some are written as separate words, some are written as one word with their hosts, and some are attached to their hosts, but set off by punctuation (a hyphen or an apostrophe, for example).
Although the term "clitic" can be used descriptively to refer to any element whose grammatical status is somewhere in between a typical word and a typical affix, linguists have proposed various definitions of "clitic" as a technical term. One common approach is to treat clitics as words that are prosodically deficient: they cannot appear without a host, and they can only form an accentual unit in combination with their host. The term "postlexical clitic" is used for this narrower sense of the term.
Given this basic definition, further criteria are needed to establish a dividing line between postlexical clitics and morphological affixes, since both are characterized by a lack of prosodic autonomy. There is no natural, clear-cut boundary between the two categories (since from a historical point of view, a given form can move gradually from one to the other by morphologization). However, by identifying clusters of observable properties that are associated with core examples of clitics on the one hand, and core examples of affixes on the other, one can pick out a battery of tests that provide an empirical foundation for a clitic/affix distinction.
An affix syntactically and phonologically attaches to a base morpheme of a limited part of speech, such as a verb, to form a new word. A clitic syntactically functions above the word level, on the phrase or clause level, and attaches only phonetically to the first, last, or only word in the phrase or clause, whichever part of speech the word belongs to. The results of applying these criteria sometimes reveal that elements that have traditionally been called "clitics" actually have the status of affixes (e.g. the Romance pronominal clitics discussed below).
Clitics do not always appear next to the word or phrase that they are associated with grammatically. They may be subject to global word order constraints that act on the entire sentence. Many languages, for example, obey "Wackernagel's Law", which requires clitics to appear in "second position", after the first syntactic phrase or the first stressed word in a clause:
- Czech: Kde se to stalo? ("Where REFL that happened" = "Where did that happen?")
Several clitics appearing in the same position (sharing the same host) form a "clitic cluster". The relative order of clitics in a cluster is usually strictly fixed (just as affixes appear in a strict order within a single word):
- Czech: Nechtěli jsme vám ho dát. ("NOT-wanted 1PL to-you it give" = "We didn't want to give it to you.")
- Polish: Ty widziałbyś go jutro. ("you saw-COND-2sg him tomorrow" = "You would see him tomorrow.")
Clitics in English
English enclitics include:
- The abbreviated forms of be:
- ’m in I’m
- ’re in you’re
- ’s in she’s
- The abbreviated forms of auxiliary
- ’ll in they’ll
- ’ve in they’ve
- To express the possessive of a phrase:
- ’s in the girl next door’s cat
English proclitics include:
- a ____ in a desk
- an ____ in an egg
- the ____ in the house
The contraction n’t as in couldn’t etc. has been shown to have the properties of an affix, rather than a syntactically independent clitic. In English, clitics must be unstressed, but not as a full word cannot be unstressed.
- I have not done it yet.
- I’ve not done it yet.
- I haven’t done it yet.
- I’ven’t done it yet. (dialectal non-standard)
Stress also prevents cliticization as follows:
- I don’t know who she is. (*I don't know who she’s.)
- Have you done it? —Yes, I have. (*Yes, I’ve.)
- He’s not a fool. —He is a fool! (*He’s a fool!) cf. He’s not a genius, either.
Clitics in Romance
In the Romance languages, the articles and direct and indirect object personal pronoun forms are clitics. In Spanish, for example:
- las aguas [laˈsaɣwas] ("the waters")
- lo atamos [loaˈtamos] ("it tied-1PL" = "we tied it")
- dámelo [ˈdamelo] ("give me it")
According to most criteria, in fact, the pronominal clitics in most of the Romance languages have already developed into affixes.
There is still some debate as to whether or not this change from clitic to affix has occurred with French subject pronouns. Subject pronouns, especially, are still considered clitics as they force a topicalized reading of a coindexed XP.
Some dialects of Portuguese (such as that spoken in Portugal) allow clitic object pronouns to surface as mesoclitics:
- Ela levá-lo-ia ("She take-it-would" — "She would take it").
- Eles dar-no-lo-ão ("They give-us-it-will" — "They will give it to us").
In the Indo-European languages, some clitics can be traced back to Proto-Indo-European: for example, *-kwe is the original form of Sanskrit च, Greek τε, and Latin -que.
- Latin: -que and, -ve or, -ne (yes-no question)
- Greek: τε and, δέ but, γάρ for (in a logical argument), οὖν therefore
- Russian: ли (yes-no question), же (emphasis), то (emphasis), не "not" (proclitic), бы (subjunctive)
- Dutch: 't definite article of neuter nouns and third person singular neuter pronoun, 'k first person pronoun, je second person singular pronoun, ie third person masculin singular pronoun, ze third person plural pronoun
- Plautdietsch: "Deit'a't vondoag?": "Will he do it today?"
- Czech: special clitics: weak personal and reflexive pronouns (mu, "him"), certain auxiliary verbs (by, "would"), and various short particles and adverbs (tu, "here"; ale, "though"). "Nepodařilo by se mi mu to dát" "I would not succeed in giving it to him". In addition there are various simple clitics including short prepositions.
- Swedish: Definite articles are attached to the end of the nouns (enclitic), like in the other Scandinavian languages. Examples: "en pojke" "a boy", "pojken" "the boy", "pojkarna" "the boys"; "en flicka" "a girl", "flickan" "the girl"; "ett barn" "a child", "barnet" "the child"
- In Old Norse, the definite article is expressed in the enclitic "-inn" eg. alfrinn "the elf" dvergrinn "the dwarf" and haukrinn "the hawk".
- Japanese: all particles, such as the genitive postposition の (no) and the topic marker は (wa).
- Korean: The copula 이다 (ida) and the adjectival 하다 (hada), as well as some nominal and verbal particles (e.g. 는, neun). However, alternative analysis suggests that the nominal particles do not function as clitics, but as phrasal affixes.
- Luganda: -nga attached to a verb to form the progressive; -wo 'in' (also attached to a verb)
- Clitic doubling
- Possessive case
- Separable affix
- Weak form and strong form
- Weak pronoun
- Genitive case
proclitic in Afrikaans: Klitikum
proclitic in Breton: Stagadenn
proclitic in Czech: Příklonka
proclitic in German: Klitika
proclitic in Spanish: Clítico
proclitic in French: Clitique
proclitic in Friulian: Clitic
proclitic in Italian: Clitico
proclitic in Lithuanian: Proklitikai
proclitic in Dutch: Cliticum
proclitic in Japanese: 接語
proclitic in Norwegian Nynorsk: Klitikon
proclitic in Polish: Enklityka
proclitic in Portuguese: Clítico
proclitic in Romanian: Clitic
proclitic in Russian: Клитика
proclitic in Finnish: Liitepartikkeli
proclitic in Tagalog: Ingklitik
proclitic in Turkish: Klitik
proclitic in Chinese: 附著詞素